It can mimic some of the movement functions of the human hand and the arm, and is used to grasp, transport, or operate the tool's automatic operation device according to a fixed procedure. It can replace the heavy labor of people to realize the mechanization and automation of production, and can operate in harmful environment to protect personal safety. Therefore, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, electronics, light industry and atomic energy.
The robot is mainly composed of a hand and a moving mechanism. The hand is used to grip the workpiece (or tool). There are various structural forms according to the shape, size, weight, material and operation requirements of the object to be grasped, such as clamping type, holding type and adsorption type. . The moving mechanism enables the hand to perform various rotation (swinging), moving or compounding movements to achieve the prescribed action, and to change the position and posture of the grasped object. The independent movement of the movement mechanism such as lifting, telescopic, and rotating is called the degree of freedom of the robot. In order to grab objects in any position and orientation in space, there are 6 degrees of freedom. Degree of freedom is a key parameter for robotic design. The more degrees of freedom, the greater the flexibility of the manipulator, the wider the versatility, and the more complex the structure. General purpose robots have 2 to 3 degrees of freedom.
The types of manipulators can be divided into hydraulic, pneumatic, electric and mechanical manipulators according to the driving method; they can be divided into special manipulators and general manipulators according to the applicable scope; according to the motion track control mode, they can be divided into point control and continuous. The trajectory controls the robot and the like.
Robots are often used as an add-on to machine tools or other machines, such as loading and unloading and transferring workpieces on automated machine tools or automated production lines, changing tools in machining centers, etc., and generally do not have separate controls. Some operating devices need to be directly manipulated by humans, such as master-slave operators for handling dangerous goods in the atomic energy department, often referred to as robots.